A hormone produced by fat cells that sends signals to the hypothalamus, regulating the amount of fat in the body.
A molecule or ion having the ability to bond with a protein.
An a disease of the autoimmune system, in which anti-DNA antibodies bind to DNA, creating complexes that cause inflammatory reactions in the kidneys.
Diverse and potent chemical messengers that bind to specific receptors as part of the body's immune response.
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
The protein that reads the DNA's code and communicates it to ribosomes so that new proteins can be built.
A disease in which the body's immune cells attack the insulation material that surrounds nerve fibers in the spinal cord and brain. MS is characterized by recurrent muscle weakness, loss of muscle control, and in many cases, eventual paralysis.
A disease characterized by inflammation of the kidneys, often resulting from lupus.
The science dealing with the functions and diseases of the kidney.
A term used to describe diseases (such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease) which cause elements of the nervous system to deteriorate.
A term describing interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine glands. Obesity and Type 2 diabetes are examples of neuroendocrine diseases.
Nerves in the brain that receive incoming messages from proteins like neurotrophc factors.
The practice of minimizing neural damage done by diseases.
Any of the sciences dealing with the nervous system.
Naturally-occurring proteins that aid in the survival of neurons and promote their growth.
A blood disorder often induced by chemotherapy, occurring in as many as one in three patients receiving that treatment for cancer.
White blood cells produced in bone marrow that fight infection and repair the resulting tissue damage.
The name given to an individual unit comprising the DNA double helix. A nucleotide contains one sugar, one phosphate, and one base.
The organelle within a living cell that contains genetic material and controls life functions.
A neuroendocrine condition characterized by increased body weight, resulting from excessive accumulation of fat.
Short chains of nucleotides made synthetically through the linking of several nucleotides.
A type of unit added to a protein in the process of glycosylation.
The medical science relating to the development, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of tumors.
A type of arthritis characterized by chronic degeneration of joint cartilage.
A disease resulting in the weakening and slow healing of bones.
A protein that has been shown to inhibit the absorption of bone, combating osteoporosis and bone metastasis caused by cancer.