A neurological disease resulting in the death of brain cells associated with emotions and motor control.
A process in which a polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecule is attached to a standard interferon molecule.
Peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation
The transferring of progenitor cells, with the intention of improving the body's ability to produce blood.
An outward or visible characteristic of an organism, as determined by the DNA of its genotype.
An independent and stable piece of DNA found in bacterial cells. Plasmids are used as a carrier, allowing foreign "recombinant" DNA to be recognized by a cell's protein-making machinery.
Polycystic kidney disease
A genetic disorder in which multiple cysts grow in the kidneys. These cysts, filled with liquid, can slowly replace much of the mass of the kidneys, resulting in reduced kidney function and leading to kidney failure.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG)
A molecule used in the process of pegylation.
Product license application (PLA)
The documentation required to obtain a drug's approval by the Food and Drug Administration.
Ancestor cells that can restore function in tissues damaged by disease. Progenitor cells found in the bone marrow, for instance, are stimulated by the recombinant protein erythropoietin to form mature red blood cells.
Simple organisms, such as bacteria, that lack a defined nucleus.
Compounds constituting the ultimate expression product of a gene. Created through the synthesis performed by ribosomes, proteins are the workhorses of living systems, causing chemical processes and changing as their environment does.
A term describing a new combination of genes that forms DNA. Recombinant DNA technology allows for the production of human proteins, which the body may not be able to produce in sufficient quantities.
Red Blood Cells
Cells manufactured in bone marrow which carry oxygen from the lungs to body tissues. Anemia is the result of an insufficient red blood cell count.
Enzymes having the ability to cut DNA at a certain location. Bacteria produce restriction enzymes to ward off viruses by chopping them up. Where DNA ligase is the glue of recombinant DNA technology, restriction enzymes are the scissors.
An inflammatory disease affecting the joints.
The medical science dealing with diseases of the muscles, tendons, joints, bones, or nerves.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
A molecule with similar structure to DNA, but with a primary function of protein synthesis.
The sugar found in RNA.
A pathological condition occurring by consequence of a disease.
A measurement of the persistence of serum, the fluid created when blood is separated into its solid and liquid components. Half-life is the amount of time that elapses before half a sample is metabolized or eliminated by normal biological processes.
The movement of signals from the outside of the cell to the inside. Scientists are attempting to learn more about this process in cancer cells in order to fight the disease.
Small molecule compounds
Combinations of small molecules. Creating new small molecule compounds is often a step in drug discovery.
The building blocks of nucleic acids, such as amino acids, vitamins, purines, and pyrimidines.
A cardiovascular disease caused by the disruption of the blood vessels that bring oxygen and nutrients to the brain.
The cells that control the response of the immune system.
An enzyme, only present in cancerous cells, that enables cellular immortality. It is thought to be important in the study of cancer and aging.
The medical treatment of disease.
One of the four bases found in DNA. It pairs with adenine.
The process by which enzymes use the genetic information on a strand of DNA to create a complimentary strand of messenger RNA (mRNA).
Transfer RNAs (tRNA)
Molecules that carry amino acids during the process of protein synthesis.
The process of transferring DNA from a donor to a recipient cell.
A term describing an organism containing genetic material from a source other than its parents.
Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)
A protein originally shown to have the potential to kill cancerous tumors, and an important cytokine in the pathogenesis of RA.
A base found in RNA. It is the counterpart of thymine in DNA.